Data Collection (online available and identified)
ABS. Basic Community Profile 2011 Available from http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/SSC40502
AURIN Australian Urban Research Infrastrutcure Network Avaiable from https://aurin.org.au/
Additional sources contacted (further to Adelaide city council)
Greg Ingleton SA Water 15/05/2014-ongoing Topic: water consumption data
Origin SA-09/05/2014-ongoing Topic:energy consumption data
Monika Nitschke SA Health 10/04/2014-ongoing Topic: excess morbidity data in Adelaide Metropolitan Region
Dr Susan Williams University of Adelaide 17/04/2014 Topic: research on morbidity and mortality in Adelaide metropolitan region
Andrew Partridge EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 25/04/2014-ongoing Topic: meteorological data from EPA weather stations
Dr Huade Guan Flinders 05/03/2014 –ongoing Topic: meteorological data from Flinders University temperature network
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List of other relevant research groups worldwide
HEATWAVE WATCH SYSTEMS
Australian Heatwave Forecast
The Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) Pilot Heatwave Forecast depicts the heatwaves for the next 4 days across Australia. Each location has its own unique climatology of heat. The bulk of heatwaves at each location are low intensity with local communities expected to have adequate adaptation strategies for this level of thermal stress. Less frequent, higher intensity heatwaves are classified as severe and will challenge some adaptation strategies, especially for vulnerable sectors such as aged or the chronically ill. The forecast is based on the BOM created excess heat factor (EHF). EHF defines heatwave without using local specific empirical thresholds and enables the comparison of heatwaves between different locations.
UK Heatwave Watch
The UK Heatwave watch system comprises four levels of response based upon threshold maximum daytime and minimum night-time temperatures. These thresholds vary by region, but an average threshold temperature is 30 °C by day and 15 °C overnight.
UHI AND HEATWAVE RELATED PROJECTS
UHI Research in Europe
The Europe wide UHI project aims at developing mitigation and risk prevention and management strategies concerning the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. The project is undertaken by researchers from eight metropolitan regions across Europe. A decision support system and a UHI Atlas were developed to help the work of decision and policy makers, urban designers and relevant consultants.
Responding to the urban heat island: optimising the implementation of green infrastructure
The project comprises researchers from Melbourne, Monash and RMIT universities and assesses the effectiveness of different green infrastructure systems for urban cooling and develops decision-making guidance for urban land managers to optimise the selection and implementation of green infrastructure options.
Integrating Green Infrastructure (GI) e.g. street trees, lawns, green roofs and walls into the urban landscape has the potential to cool the urban microclimate by providing shade and evapotranspirative cooling whilst reducing heat storage. Irrigating green infrastructure with safe and sustainable water sources (storm water, recycled water) will further improve vegetation health and cooling effectiveness. While there are a variety of GI options available, the effectiveness of different options is poorly understood. There is also little guidance for urban land managers on selection and implementation of GI elements for the greatest cooling effect and the policy and institutional requirements for expanding GI in urban environments.
Urban Heat Island Project in Adelaide
The project examined UHIE in the Adelaide Metropolitan Region. The three-year Adelaide Urban Heat Island (UHI) project, which collected and analysed data from 45 points and by remote sensing around the city, also found that heatwaves can boost daytime office building electricity use by 50 per cent from the average. Project leader Dr Huade Guan, from the School of the Environment and National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training at Flinders, said the report had implications for urban planning and building design in Adelaide. The University of Adelaide’s Schools of Chemistry and Physics, and Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Urban Design and consultancy firm Cundall took part in the analysis and modelling of the data. The project was funded by the Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources through the South Australian University Sector Agreement Research Fund on Climate Change; the Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure; the Department of Premier and Cabinet; and the Adelaide City Council.
Heat Related Research from SA Health
Researchers at SA Health have been working with The University of Adelaide to investigate how to prevent poor health during extreme heat. The areas of research include:
- the types of health effects from extreme heat
- who is at risk and what are the risk factors
- how climate change is predicted to affect extreme heat events
The Heat Island Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory works to cool buildings, cities, and the planet by making roofs, pavements, and cars cooler in the sun.
A spatial vulnerability analysis of urban populations during extreme heat events in Australian capital cities
The Monash University conducted research focusing on the population vulnerability to heatwaves. Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers’ need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future.
Numerical and experimental study on integrated strategic simulation model of urban environment
The Numerical and experimental study on integrated strategic simulation model of urban environment project lead carried out by the University of Reading included the following objectives:
- Development of a dynamic coupled thermal and airflow urban model with integrated Digital Elevation Model (DEM);
- Model validation with experimental data from urban canyons;
- Linking the proposed model with existing thermal and airflow building models in order to conduct interrelationship analysis of urban microclimates and building energy performance ;
- Analysis of urban heat island (UHI) mitigation strategies and the impact on urban environments, energy consumption and carbon emissions;
Assess urban and building thermal comfort.
State of Australian Cities 2013, Chapter 4 Sustainability, Extreme Weather
The State of Australian Cities 2013 report pointed out the importance of research on UHI, heatwaves and population vulnerability.